The question brings a lot of aspects together. Not to worry, because they aren’t that complicated.
If you are planning to raise chickens as a major part of your poultry farm.
It’s good to know how biology in chickens works. For that, you don’t have to go back to your school.

Chickens can lay eggs often but maybe not that usual as you expect because a chicken egg takes at least 24 hours to be formed. And it’s an interesting formation to learn.

However, it completely depends upon the egg layering breed that you select. High-quality breeds can be productive with one egg per day, depending upon their nourishment and the climate.
So, there are factors that control how many eggs a chicken can lay in a day.

Some high-quality egg-laying chicken breeds can help you for good egg production.
Before understanding the best egg-laying chickens, let’s understand the egg-laying process in chickens.

hen egg

When do chickens lay eggs?

It is expected for a chicken to start laying eggs when it’s around 6 months old,
According to the quality of the chicken breed, the egg-laying capacity varies, which further depends upon the environmental conditions.

For a hen to lay an egg the heat requirement should be at its peak, that’s why poultry farmers ensure warmth inside the coop.
And therefore, there’s different satisfaction to find an egg in the coop. Because it does take effort and hard work.

How do chickens lay eggs?

Now, to understand how real the egg-laying process happens in its natural form, let’s take a look at the step by step development of the egg.

When the ova turns into yolks:

After the fertilization process, the ova inside the ovary. It takes thousands of yolks for a chick to form. Once the best yolk is preferred, it goes under development for around 8 to 10 days. Later, when the yolk is ready to be dispatched, it falls into the entrance of the oviduct.

Formation of the egg white:

Inside the oviduct, a thin membrane called Vitelline covers the outer membrane of the yolk. To enrich the coating further, a thick protein called albumen is also formed, which is known as the egg white. the whole process takes around 3 hours of formation.

The chalazae that hold the Yolk:

Once the covering is done, the egg rolls down the oviduct forming another membrane called chalazae. If you have observed, chalazae are the spring-like white substances present at the two edges of the yolk.
It is what helps in the balance of the egg yolk to stay in the center, intact.

Towards the shell gland:

While it’s the journey towards the uterus or what we call the shell gland, where the egg is made to develop into an oval shape in the isthmus. there the inner and the outer shell membranes form in about 75 minutes.

Later it dives into the shell gland to complete the process of egg development. this is where the major eggshell formation happens. The color and strength are added to the shell during this process taking about 19 hours. The process requires 4 grams of calcium per shell.

However, the color of the shell depends upon the breed. In such chickens, the color of the egg(shell) is determined by the secretion of pigments, specifically known as Porphyrins.
During the shell formation, it is necessary to ensure that a good feed is served to the hen.

In the Last layer:

Before the egg is released through the hen’s vent, another ultimate coating is done once it has left the uterus. The protective layer is Bloom. A layer of lubricant is also added to Bloom for a smooth exit.

This is how the egg emerges to repeat the same process until the hen has enough eggs.
There’s a 30 minutes gap after laying every egg before the process continues.

hen

Best egg laying Chickens:

Leghorn

The origin of this breed is however not sure, it is believed to be originated from the landrace chicken in Italy as ten different colors of leghorn were developed in Italy

They are considered as one of the unique breeds in the market with their ability to lay around 250 eggs a year. They are very active foragers with prolific egg-laying abilities.
A full-grown Leghorn can weigh up to 3.4kg.

Plymouth Rock Chicken

Plymouth Rock is another breed that is used for dual purposes with its good productivity both in layering and meat.
Their appearance is basically of black and white feathers with a tint of grey. They are hardy and can live longer. A mature Plymouth can weigh up to 8 lbs.

These chickens can lay around 200 eggs per year. One of the major oldest breeds in the US, Plymouth rock is the best choice for a beginner in layer egg farming.

Lohmann Chicken

This breed is regarded as the most classic breed of chickens commonly known as the Lohmann Brown Classic Chicken. They are one among the preferred brown egg-laying chickens.
Typically brown, as the name itself suggests, these hens require less feed comparatively.

Developed through cross-breeding, these breeds are well able to lay around 300 eggs per year.
A matured Lohmann can weigh up to 3.4 to 4.6 lbs

Golden Comet

Golden comet is best known for its egg-laying capacity, Without any hesitation or worries, you can expect the golden comet to lay one egg every day. They have an average weight of 4 to 6 pounds.
This breed is a well known hybrid with mostly in brown and golden colors
.

They can lay up to 300 eggs per year.
Golden comets are preferred mainly because of the hardy nature that makes them survive even the most extreme weather conditions

Sussex Chicken

Also known as Kentish fowl, Sussex chicken has been around us for a long time(in fact centuries ago).
Due to selective breeding, these chickens are found in different colors across the world. Some color appearances are Brown, white, buff, silver, red, etc.

They can lay eggs up to 250 eggs per year. They are also considered as one of bets broiler chickens. these breeds can weigh around 7 to 8 lbs.

Ameraucana

This breed of chickens originated from America in the 1970s named after the Araucanian Indians.
They are found in varied colors like black, brown, red, silver, white, etc.

Developed as a hybrid, these chickens can lay around 200 eggs per year.
They are also known for their eggs that have a tinge of green and blue color. the eggs are also called Easter eggs because of their colors. The breed can weigh about 3kg

Best brown Egg-laying chickens:

Australorp Chicken

Australorps are prolific brown egg laying chicken breeds. They were first developed in Australia in the 1920s. Although they were developed to suit the Australian climate, slowly it gained attention throughout America.

Australorps are a mix of Orpington and Rhode island red chicken. they can lay around 250 to 300 eggs a year in light brown colors.
They are calm and gentle.

Rhode Island Red

They are well able to lay eggs of different colors, predominantly brown ones. A very good breed to sustain summer, Rhode island red was developed in the 1800s. they can lay more than 5 eggs per week.

However, they are mainly dual-purpose chicken breeds, they are used for egg production as well.
They are extra larges in size with very docile.

Marans

Marans are specifically known for their attractive brown eggs. The eggs have the darkest shade amongst all the other brown egg laying chicken. They have their origin from France developed during the 1800s.

They can lay up to 4 eggs a week.
Marans have an active temperament with good adaptability.

Dominique

The origin of Dominique chicken breeds is believed to be unsure as there are various stories regarding them. Such as the visit of pilgrims brought them in America. They are also called as Pilgrim fowl.

They are one among the oldest, and the popular brown egg layers in America. Dominique breed can lay around 4 eggs a week with medium egg sizes.
They are cold and hardy, ready to handle all sorts of extreme conditions.

Golden buff

The golden buffs are one of the most popular egg-laying breeds with large dark brown eggs.
They have been existing since 1985, although they aren’t a pure chicken breed.

They can lay up to 260 eggs per year with around 5 brown eggs a week.
Just like other major strong chicken breeds Golden buff is also hardy with great adaptability.

Silver laced Cochin

The Silver laced Cochins are a very rare variety of Cochin chickens who were brought from China during the 1840s.
They are good at laying eggs which are specifically brown in colors. they are best known for their docile and broody nature.

Silver laced Cochins aren’t the top listed brown egg-laying chickens but have good quality with up to 180 eggs a year.

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About the Author

I have been raising farm animals for the past 15 years. I will be sharing my knowledge and what I have learned all these years.

Farm Animals Guide

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